This is an essay to be written in APA style based on course APA Minimum Expectations. Essays must be structurally intact with appropriate grammar, sentence and paragraph composition, spelling, punctuation, and logical, clear essay development (including introduction and conclusion). Paper length 2-3 pages max, excluding cover and reference page. Must have a minimum of three references. Content: Address the following topics listed: 1. Discuss the etiology of pressure injury. 2. Discuss risk factors (local and systemic) and who is most at risk. 3. Discuss the tool (Braden Scale) to predict pressure injury risk factors, nursing interventions and up-to-date guidelines. assignment will be submitted to a plagiarism website need by Saturday 03/2/19
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In this essay, we will discuss the etiology of pressure injuries, the risk factors associated with them, and the tool known as the Braden Scale that is used to predict pressure injury risk factors and guide nursing interventions. We will also explore the most up-to-date guidelines related to pressure injury prevention and management.
1. Etiology of Pressure Injury:
Pressure injuries, also known as pressure ulcers or bedsores, are localized injuries to the skin and underlying tissue that occur as a result of prolonged pressure on the affected area. The most common etiology of pressure injuries is immobility or reduced mobility, leading to prolonged pressure on specific points of the body such as bony prominences. Other contributing factors include friction, shear, moisture, and poor nutrition.
2. Risk Factors (Local and Systemic) and Those Most at Risk:
Pressure injuries can occur in individuals of all ages, but certain groups are more susceptible. The risk factors can be categorized into local and systemic factors. Local factors include the presence of moisture, poor circulation, and friction or shear forces. Systemic factors comprise nutritional deficits, chronic diseases, immobility, and advanced age.
Individuals who are most at risk of developing pressure injuries are those with limited mobility, such as patients in long-term care facilities, those with spinal cord injuries, and individuals who are bedridden or wheelchair-bound. Aging adults are also at increased risk due to changes in skin integrity and reduced subcutaneous tissue.
3. Braden Scale and Nursing Interventions:
The Braden Scale is a widely used tool to predict pressure injury risk factors. It assesses six key factors: sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction/shear. Each factor is assigned a score, and the total score indicates the individual’s level of risk. The scale helps healthcare professionals identify patients who require preventative interventions and allocate appropriate resources.
Nursing interventions to prevent pressure injuries include regular repositioning of patients, ensuring proper nutrition and hydration, maintaining skin cleanliness and moisture control, using pressure-relieving devices such as specialized mattresses or cushions, and educating patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals on pressure injury prevention.
Up-to-date guidelines for pressure injury prevention and management recommend a multidisciplinary approach that involves comprehensive assessments, individualized care plans, and ongoing monitoring. The guidelines highlight the importance of early detection, prompt intervention, and collaboration between healthcare professionals to optimize outcomes and minimize the occurrence of pressure injuries.
In conclusion, pressure injuries are a common concern in healthcare settings, especially among individuals with limited mobility or specific risk factors. Understanding the etiology of pressure injuries, recognizing associated risk factors, and utilizing tools like the Braden Scale can help healthcare professionals predict and prevent pressure injuries effectively. By implementing evidence-based nursing interventions and following up-to-date guidelines, healthcare providers can minimize the impact of pressure injuries on patient well-being and promote optimal healing.