This is an essay to be written in APA style based on course APA Minimum Expectations. Essays must be structurally intact with appropriate grammar, sentence and paragraph composition, spelling, punctuation, and logical, clear essay development (including introduction and conclusion). Paper length 2-3 pages max, excluding cover and reference page. Must have a minimum of three references. Content: Address the following topics listed: 1. Discuss the etiology of pressure injury. 2. Discuss risk factors (local and systemic) and who is most at risk. 3. Discuss the tool (Braden Scale) to predict pressure injury risk factors, nursing interventions and up-to-date guidelines. assignment will be submitted to a plagiarism website need by Saturday 03/2/19
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Pressure injuries, also known as pressure ulcers or bedsores, are a significant healthcare problem affecting a wide range of patients. These injuries can be challenging to manage and may negatively impact the quality of life of individuals. As a medical professor, it is crucial to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of pressure injuries, the risk factors associated with their development, and the tools and guidelines used to assess and prevent them.
1. Etiology of Pressure Injury:
Pressure injuries result from sustained pressure applied to the skin and underlying tissues, leading to ischemia and tissue damage. The prolonged pressure disrupts blood flow, depriving the tissues of oxygen and nutrients, ultimately leading to tissue ischemia and necrosis. Friction and shear forces can also contribute to the development of pressure injuries by damaging the superficial layers of the skin and disrupting the blood supply to the affected areas. The severity of pressure injuries can range from superficial damage to deep tissue involvement extending to the bones.
2. Risk Factors for Pressure Injury:
Various factors increase an individual’s susceptibility to pressure injury development. These factors can be categorized into local and systemic risk factors. Local risk factors include excessive moisture from incontinence or perspiration, non-blanchable erythema, prolonged pressure over bony prominences, friction, and shear forces. Systemic risk factors encompass compromised circulation, advanced age, immobility, malnutrition, chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), sensory impairment, and cognitive impairment.
Certain groups are particularly susceptible to pressure injuries. Bedridden patients and those with limited mobility, such as individuals in nursing homes or intensive care units, are at high risk due to prolonged pressure on specific areas. Additionally, elderly individuals, especially those who are frail or have comorbidities, are more prone to developing pressure injuries. Patients with chronic conditions, such as diabetes or peripheral vascular disease, may have compromised circulation, increasing their vulnerability to tissue damage under pressure.
3. The Braden Scale and Prevention Guidelines:
The Braden Scale is a widely used tool to assess pressure injury risk and guide nursing interventions. It comprises six subscales that evaluate various risk factors, including sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction/shear. Each subscale is scored from 1 to 4 or 1 to 3, with lower scores indicating higher risk. The total score is then calculated, and patients are categorized into different risk levels: high, moderate, low, or no risk.
Based on the Braden Scale score, interventions can be tailored to prevent pressure injuries. These interventions may include regular repositioning, skin inspection and assessment, appropriate moisture management, nutrition optimization, and the use of pressure-relieving surfaces or devices. Continuous monitoring and reassessment of the patient’s condition are essential to ensure the effectiveness of preventive measures.
To stay updated on the latest guidelines for pressure injury prevention and management, healthcare professionals should refer to reputable sources such as the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) and the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP). These organizations regularly publish evidence-based guidelines that incorporate the most recent research findings and expert recommendations.
In conclusion, pressure injuries pose a significant challenge in healthcare, affecting various patient populations. Understanding the etiology, risk factors, and assessment tools such as the Braden Scale is crucial for medical college students. By incorporating preventive measures based on current guidelines, healthcare professionals can effectively reduce the incidence and severity of pressure injuries, ultimately improving patient outcomes.