This is an essay to be written in APA style based on course APA Minimum Expectations. Essays must be structurally intact with appropriate grammar, sentence and paragraph composition, spelling, punctuation, and logical, clear essay development (including introduction and conclusion). Paper length 2-3 pages max, excluding cover and reference page. Must have a minimum of three references. Content: Address the following topics listed: 1. Discuss the etiology of pressure injury. 2. Discuss risk factors (local and systemic) and who is most at risk. 3. Discuss the tool (Braden Scale) to predict pressure injury risk factors, nursing interventions and up-to-date guidelines. assignment will be submitted to a plagiarism website need by Saturday 03/2/19
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Pressure injuries, also known as pressure ulcers or bedsores, are a significant concern in healthcare settings. These injuries occur when there is prolonged pressure on the skin and underlying tissues, resulting in damage to the affected area. This essay aims to discuss the etiology of pressure injuries, the risk factors associated with their development, and the use of the Braden Scale as a tool to predict pressure injury risk factors, nursing interventions, and up-to-date guidelines.
1. The etiology of pressure injury:
The development of pressure injuries is multifactorial. The primary cause is prolonged pressure that compromises blood flow to the affected area. When pressure is applied for an extended period, it leads to tissue ischemia, cellular damage, and subsequent breakdown. Additionally, moisture, friction, and shear forces can contribute to the development of pressure injuries by exacerbating tissue damage and impairing the skin’s ability to withstand pressure.
2. Risk factors for pressure injury development:
Both local and systemic factors can increase an individual’s susceptibility to pressure injuries. Local risk factors include immobility, impaired sensory perception, friction and shear, and malnutrition. Immobility restricts blood flow and exposes certain body parts to continuous pressure. Impaired sensory perception prevents individuals from adequately perceiving discomfort and making necessary position changes. Friction and shear can cause tissue damage when there is sliding or drag between the skin and a surface. Malnutrition compromises tissue health and impairs wound healing. Systemic risk factors include advanced age, chronic diseases (such as diabetes), impaired circulation, and poor overall health. These systemic factors affect the body’s overall ability to withstand pressure and heal wounds.
3. The Braden Scale as a predictive tool and nursing interventions:
The Braden Scale is a widely used tool to assess an individual’s risk of developing pressure injuries. It consists of six subscales: sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction and shear. Each subscale is scored, and the total score determines the risk level. The lower the score, the higher the risk of pressure injury development. The Braden Scale assists healthcare providers in identifying individuals at high risk, implementing appropriate preventive measures, and developing tailored care plans.
Nursing interventions to prevent pressure injuries include regular skin assessments, repositioning and mobilization, maintaining proper hygiene and skin integrity, optimizing nutrition, managing moisture, and educating patients, caregivers, and healthcare staff on pressure injury prevention. By adhering to up-to-date guidelines, implementing these nursing interventions can help reduce the incidence and severity of pressure injuries.
In conclusion, pressure injuries are complex and multifactorial, with prolonged pressure being the primary cause. Various local and systemic risk factors contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to developing pressure injuries. The Braden Scale is a valuable tool for predicting pressure injury risk factors, guiding nursing interventions, and following up-to-date guidelines. By implementing preventive measures and providing comprehensive care, healthcare professionals can effectively manage and prevent the occurrence of pressure injuries.